book2-4


When thee slaves saw that matters were not progressing along the lines hey wished and that the destruction of such men was not an easy job as the Emperor's goodwill towards them augmented daily, they broached many plans and as often rejected them and finally settled on another course. And what was it? - it was to-send for them one night without the ruler's knowledge and to put them out of the way by trumping up some false charge and boring out [50] their eyes. The Comneni heard of this As they recognized that danger was very near they decided after much internal conflict that their only hope of safety lay in rebellion and that they were driven to by dire necessity.

奴隷達は事態が彼らの望むように進まず、皇帝の兄弟に向けられる好意が日増しに高まって行くなかでは二人を破滅させることが容易ではないと分かった。様々な計画を試みてはその都度はねつけられたので、遂には別のやり方で解決を図ることとした。それはどのようなものであったのであろうか?計画は皇帝の承認なしに兄弟を夜中に呼び出してでっち上げの罪状を楯に目をえぐり出してしまうというものであった。コムネノス兄弟はこれを聞いて、危険はすでに身近に迫り、長い煩悶の末に、自らの安全を望むなら反逆の中にのみそれを見つけるうるのだと決意した。全く必要に迫られてのことであった。

For what sense was there in waiting for the red-hot iron to be applied which would quench the light of their eyes for ever? Therefore they kept this decision deep down in their minds. Soon after this Alexius (who was at that time Domestic of the Western Empire) was ordered to call up to the city a certain division of the army to be prepared for marching against the Hagarenes who had sacked the city of Cyzicus. Seizing this reasonable opportunity, he summoned by letter those officers in the army who were well disposed to himself and their respective troops. These were all mobilized and hurried up to the metropolis. In the meantime somebody at the suggestion of that fellow, Borilus, one of the slaves, asked the Emperor whether it was by his wish that the Great Domestic was introducing all the forces into the city.

赤く熱せられた鉄で両目の光を奪われることを座視する謂われがあろうか。それゆえ兄弟はこの決意を心の奥に置いた。この直ぐ後にアレクシオス(当時、西方最高司令官)はキュジコスの町を占拠したハガレネスを攻める為、コンスタンティノープルに軍団の一部を召集するように命じられた。この理由のつく機会をとらえて、アレクシオスは手紙で軍団の中で忠実な将校とその麾下にある部隊を召喚した。各部隊の全員が動員され、首都に急行した。このとき、件のボリウスの示唆を受けた者が、アレクシオスが部隊の全て首都に導き入れようとしているのは皇帝の発意によるものかどうか尋ねた。

The Emperor at once sent for Alexius and asked him whether this report was true; to which Alexius immediately answered that part of the army was coming in by his, the Emperor's, orders, and as for the whole of it being assembled there from all parts he parried the question plausibly. "The army you see," he said, " has been scattered in all directions, and now the various regiments which have received the signal are coming up from their different stations. And those who see them streaming in from various quarters of the Roman dominions, think the whole army is being assembled as if by agreement and are misled by mere appearance.”

皇帝は直ちにアレクシオスを呼びにやり、この報告が真実かどうかを問い質した。これに対してアレクシオスは直ぐに、軍の一部は皇帝の命令により首都に移動しつつあると答え、その全てが首都に集結しつつあることについては理路整然と問いを退けた、曰く「陛下のご存じの通り、部隊はあらゆる方面に展開しております、そして今多くの部隊が知らせを受けて、別々の駐屯地からやって来ております。部隊がローマ帝国の様々な方向からやって来るのを見た者は全軍があたかも歩を揃えて召集されたと思い、誤った判断をしたのでしょう。」

Although Borilus had many objections to make to this speech, 
yet even so Alexius prevailed and was acquitted by the votes of all. Germanus who was simpler-minded, did not run down Alexius much. As the Emperor's soul was not perturbed even by these allegations against the Domestic, the slaves seized the opportunity and set about preparing and ambush for the Comneni. Now slaves are anyhow by nature hostile to their masters, but when they cannot injure their masters, they turn their power against their fellow-servants, and become quite insupportable. Of this type of character and spirit Alexius had experience in the case of these slaves I am speaking of. For they did not bear resentment against the Comneni from love of the Emperor, but Borilus even aimed at the throne, some said, and as Germanus was his partner in the plot, he helped him prepare the ambush carefully.

ボリウスはなおもこの言い訳に様々な反論を試みたが、アレクシオスはそれらをはね除けて、居合わせたものから白だという心証を勝ち取った。ゲルマヌスは単純な男であったからアレクシオスに大した追及を行わなかった。こうしたアレクシオスに対する訴えによっても皇帝の心が動かなかったので、奴隷達は機会を捉えてコムネノス兄弟を罠にかける準備に取りかかった。奴隷は本質的に主人に対して敵意を持つが、主人を害することができない場合は、自然そのはけ口は同僚に向かうことになり、その悪意は説明しがたいまでのものになる。アレクシオスはこうした種類の性格と根性を私の言う二人の奴隷によってすでに経験していた。彼らは皇帝に寵愛されるコムネノス兄弟に対する憤りに耐えず、また人が言うにはボリウスは帝位まで狙っており、そしてゲルマヌスはボリウスの仲間であったから、ゲルマヌスはボリウスが注意深く罠を仕掛ける手助けをした。

And they discussed their [51] plans together and imagined that the affair would turn out to their satisfaction; and now they began to speak openly of that which hitherto they had only mentioned below their breath. And thus a certain man overheard their talk, an Alanian by descent, "magister" in rank, who had long been attached to the emperor and counted among his intimates. Consequently the Magister stole out during the middle watch of the night and ran to the Comneni to report everything to the Great Domestic. Some have it that the Empress was not altogether ignorant of the Magister's visit to the Comneni. Alexius took him into his mother and brother; and after giving ear to his abominable news, they judged it necessary to execute the plan they had kept secret so long, and with God's help to compass their own safety.

奴隷二人は計画について話し合い、事の成就を想像して、かつては息を潜めて話していた事柄を大ぴらに話すようになった。それをある人が耳にすることとなった。その人はアラン人の裔であり、マギストロスの爵位を持ち、皇帝の側に長く仕え、側近の中でも皇帝から頼りにされていると見られていた。話を耳にしたのち、マギストロスは夜半(午前二時~四時)、当直の最中に抜け出してコムネノス家に駆け込み、全てを最高司令官に告げた。このマギストロスの訪問については皇后も知らぬことであったと言う人もいる。アレクシオスは彼と共に母親とイサキオスの許へ行き、彼の伝える忌まわしい知らせに耳を傾けた後、長きに渡り秘してきた計画を実行する必要があると判断した。神の助けをもって自らの安全を企かるために。

When, after the morrow, the Domestic had heard that the army had occupied Tzouroulus (this is a little town lying Thrace-wards) he went in the first watch of the night to Pacurianus and related everything to him - this man was "small indeed in stature, but a mighty warrior," [Iliad 5:801] as the poet says, and descended from a noble Armenian family. To him Alexius related the slaves' anger and envy, and their long manoeuvres against them and their immediate intention of blinding them. "But," he continued, "we cannot suffer these things as if we were captives, but we will die, if need be, after fighting bravely; for this is the prerogative of high-souled men." Pacurianus listened to it all and seeing that such circumstances admitted of no delay, but that some drastic step must be taken at once, said, " If when to-morrow's dawn breaks, you leave this city I will follow you and fight willingly on your side. But if you put it off to the next day, then be assured that without the slightest delay I shall go straight to the Emperor and denounce you and your followers." To which Alexius replied, "as I see that you really care for my safety, which is undoubtedly the work of God, I shall not reject your counsel, only let us mutually secure ourselves by oath." Thereupon they exchanged assurances with oaths to the effect that if Providence raised Alexius to the Imperial throne, he should raise Pacurianus to the rank of Domestic which he himself held in the meantime.

朝を迎えた後、軍がツォウロウラス(トラキアの小さな町:現在トルコのÇorlu)の街を落としたという知らせを聞き、深夜(午前0時~2時)にパクリアヌスの許へ行き、全てを打ち明けた。この人はイリアス第五歌801行でホメロスが歌うように「身の丈は短かりしも勇ありき」という人で、アルメニアの貴族の裔であった。彼に向かってアレクシオスは奴隷二人の怒りと嫉妬、長きにわたるコムネノス兄弟への策謀と差し迫った兄弟を盲目にしようという企てについて話した。「しかし、」アレクシオスは続けた、「例えとらわれの身になってもこのような憂き目に会うつもりはなく、もしそうなるなら戦って死ぬまで、それが誇りある人間の特権であるから。」パクリアヌスは全てを聞き、事態がいかなる遅滞も許さぬことを悟り、決定的な行動に踏み出す必要があることを理解した。そして、言った。「もし、明日の朝が明ける時にあなたがこの街を去るなら、私は君について行き、喜んで君の味方として戦おう。しかし、君が翌日までそれを延ばすなら、私は一瞬の暇も置かず皇帝の前に進み出て君と君の味方を告発するだろう。」アレクシオスはそれに答えて、「君が私の身を心配してくれていることが分かった、これこそ紛うことなく神の御業だろう、私は決して君の助言を退けたりしない、互いの身を守ることを誓おう」と言った。これより彼らは互いに誓った、もし神がアレクシオスを帝位に押し上げるなら、アレクシオスはパクリアヌスを自身の地位である長官にすることを約束したのだ。

Taking leave of Pacurianus he hurried thence to another man, also "full of warlike frenzy," namely Hubertopoulus, told him of his own intentions and put before him the reason why he had decided to escape, and invited him to join him. Hubertopoulus immediately agreed, and added, "You will [52] always find me courageous, but more especially so when I am braving danger on your behalf." The reason above all others why these men were devoted to Alexius was that he outshone others in courage and intelligence; but they also loved him because he was exceptionally generous and very ready to give, although he had not a great abundance of money. For he was not of those who plunder and open their mouths wide for riches. True liberality is not as a rule judged by the quantity of money supplied, but is weighed by the spirit of the giver. In some cases a man of few possessions who pays in proportion to his income, may justly be termed "liberal," whereas another who has much wealth and hides it in a hole in the earth, or does not give to the needy in proportion to his wealth, would rightly be styled "a second Croesus," or " a Midas mad for gold," or "niggardly and penurious " or a "cummin-splitter"! That Alexius was graced with all the virtues, the men I have mentioned had known for a long time already, and for these reasons they eagerly desired his elevation to the throne. After exchanging oaths with this officer too, Alexius set off home at a run and told his people everything. It was the night of Quinquagesima Sunday (or the "Cheese-eating" Sunday) when my father made these arrangements; and on the following day at early dawn he had already left the city with his partisans. Hence it was that the populace, who approved of Alexius' spirit and shrewdness, wove a little song to him about these occurrences, composed in their own popular dialect, and it very cleverly strikes up the prelude of the affair and accentuates his prescience of the plot against him and his consequent actions. In its original words the song ran thus;

パクリアヌスの許を去った後、アレクシオスは別の男の許へ急いだ、この人もまた「好戦的な荒ぶる男」でヒュバルトポウラスと言った。彼に向かってアレクシオスは自身の意図と、首都を抜け出す理由を明らかにした。そしてその上で彼を企みに参加するように誘った。ヒュバルトポウラスは直ちに同意し、こう付け加えた「あなたは常に私を勇者として扱ってくれるが、あなたの為に危険を冒す時にはより一層の勇気を示すことができるでしょう。」こうした男たちがアレクシオスの為に一身を捧げてくれるのはとりわけアレクシオスが他に抜きんでて勇敢で賢明であったこともあるが、それ以外にも彼らがアレクシオスを愛してくれたのは彼が図抜けて気前が良く、手元に十分な金がないときですらそうであったからである。アレクシオスは人から奪わず、金持ちの味方をする男ではなかったからである。真の気前のよさは与えた金の量で決まるのではなく、与える者の魂によって量られるのである。少ない手持ちしかない者でもその収入応じて払う者は気前がいいと言われるが、一方で大きな富を持っていても、地面に穴にそれを隠したり、富の大きさからみて少ししか払わない者は「第二のクロイソス」や「金に狂ったミダス王」、あるいは「物惜しみのけち」、「クミンをより分ける人」などと言われる。(注:cumin-splitterはアントニウス・ピウスの異称。緊縮財政を引いた為この名が伝わる。クミンは香辛料として使われる。)アレクシオスは全ての徳に恵まれ、上で触れた人達はみな、随分と前からすでにこのことを知っていたし、こうした理由から彼らは熱心にアレクシオスを帝位に押し上げようとしたのであった。この将校とも誓いを交わした後、アレクシオスは急いで家に帰り、配下に全てを告げた。父が全て手はずを整えたのは赦罪の主日の夜で(チーズを食べる日曜日ともいう)次の日の明け方早くにはすでに味方とコンスタンティノープルを後にしていた。市民達はアレクシオスの根性と抜け目のなさを認めて一連の出来事に短い歌を紡いだ。彼らの地の言葉で歌われ、事件の前触れ、アレクシオスに対する企みとそれに対する対処、その後の行動をとても上手に歌ってもいた。その歌は以下のように歌われた。

"To sabbaton tes turines chareis Alexie enoeses to
kai ten deuteron to proi hupa kalos gerakin mou"

The meaning of that popular song is roughly this, "On the Saturday named after cheese, bravo to you for your shrewd-ness, Alexius! But on the Monday after the Sunday you flew away like a high-flying hawk, out of the nets of the barbarians."

このよく歌われた歌の大意は「チーズにちなんだ日曜日、見事な賢さよ、アレクシオス。日曜の次の月曜には空高く飛ぶ鷹のように飛び去って、蛮族の網から抜け出した」というものである。



  • 最終更新:2013-03-31 09:20:10

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