book1-16


Robert now collected all his forces at Brindisi, both ships and soldiers; the ships numbered 150 and the soldiers, when all ranks were counted together, came to 30,000; and each ship could transport 200 men with their armour and horses. The soldiers were fully equipped in this way, because the enemies they would meet on landing would probably be fully-armed horsemen. Robert intended crossing to Epidamnus, which we must call "Dyrrachium," [*Durrazzo] according to the present fashion. He had, indeed, thought of crossing from Hydruntum to Nicopolis, and seizing Naupactus and the adjacent country, and all the fortresses round about it. But as the stretch of sea between these two towns was far wider than between Brindisi and Dyrrachium, he chose the latter in preference to the former, not only because he preferred the quicker passage, but also to secure a calm one for the fleet. For the season was stormy, and as the sun was turning to the southern hemisphere, and approaching Capricorn, the days were growing shorter. Therefore, to prevent the fleet's setting out from Hydruntum at daybreak and sailing all night, and perhaps meeting heavy seas, he determined to proceed from Brindisi to Dyrrachium with all sails set. As the Adriatic Sea contracts here, the length of the passage was curtailed. He did not after all leave even his son Roger behind, as he had first planned when he appointed him Count of Apulia, but changed his mind for some inexplicable reason, and took him with him too. During his crossing to Dyrrachium, the force which he had detached gained possession of the very strongly fortified town of Corfu, and certain other of our forts. After receiving hostages from Lombardy, and Apulia, and raising taxes and contributions in money from the whole country, Robert hoped to land at Dyrrachium. Duke of all Illyricum at that time was George Monomachatus, who had been appointed by the Emperor Botaniates. Once, indeed, he had refused this ' Durazzo. [41] mission, and he was by no means easily persuaded to take up this branch of service, but he finally went because two of the Emperor's barbarian servants (Borilus and Germanus, Scythians by extraction) bore a grudge against him. These men were ever inventing scandalous charges against him, and denouncing him to the Emperor, for they strung together whatever tales entered their heads, and inflamed his anger against him to such a pitch that, turning to the Queen Maria, he actually said, "I suspect this Monomachatus of being an enemy to the Roman Empire."

ロベルトは彼の全ての軍、すなわち全ての船と兵士をブリンディシに集めた。総勢で150隻の船と階級を分けずに数えた場合、兵数は3万に登った。船一隻が200人の兵と鎧と馬を運んだ。上陸した際に遭遇する敵は完全武装の騎兵であることが予期されたために、兵士はこのように完全に武装していた。ロベルトはエピダマナスに渡ろうとした、ここは現在の呼び方に習うなら我々がドゥラキウムと呼ぶ町であった。ロベルトは勿論ハイドランタムからニコポリスに渡り、ノウパクタスとその周辺、及びその地域の全ての城塞を抑えることを考えてはいたが、これらの二つの都市の間に広がる海はブリンディシとドゥラキウムの間より遥かに広いものであったため、この着想を捨てて、ドゥラキウムを攻めることを選んだ。迅速さを好んだこともあるが、艦隊の安全を考えてのことでもあった。季節柄、海は荒れ太陽は南半球に傾き山羊座に近づきつつあった(黄道十二宮の山羊座は北半球で冬至に当たる)。それゆえ、艦隊がハイドランタムから日の入りに出港し夜中に海を渡ることを、そして恐らくは荒れた海を避けるため、ロベルトはブリンディシからドゥラキウムに全艦隊で進むことを決めた。アドリア海はここで狭まり、海峡の距離は短くなる。ロベルトは結局自分の息子のルジェーロすらイタリアに残さなかった。当初、ロベルトはルジェーロをプーリア伯にすることを考えていたが、表沙汰にできない理由でルジェーロも連れていくことにしたのであった。ロベルトがドゥラキウムに渡る間、ロベルトの先遣隊が強く要塞化されたコルフ島とその他の幾つかの拠点を占拠した。ロンバルディアとプーリアから人質を受け取った後、増税と奉仕金を領土全域から受け取り、ロベルトはドゥラキウムに上陸しようとした。当時のイリュリアの長官はゲオルギウス・モノマコスで、ボタネイアテス帝に任命されてこの地にあった。彼は当初この役職を断ろうとし、容易に説得されなかったが、皇帝の二人の蛮族の側近(ボリウスとゲルマヌス。血統を辿るとスキタイ人)が彼に恨みを抱いていたので結局イリュリアに赴くこととなった。二人の皇帝の側近はモノマコスの醜聞を作り出し、皇帝に讒言を繰り返した。彼らはいろいろな話を繋ぎ合わせて、皇帝の怒りに火を点けたので、ボタネイアテス帝は皇妃マリアに向かって「朕はモノマコスがローマの敵でないかと疑っている」とまで言うようになった。

John, one of the Alani, and a devoted friend of Monomachatus, heard this, and as he was aware of the Scythians' spiteful and frequent accusations against him, he went to Monomachatus, and repeated to him both the Emperor's words and those of the Scythians, and advised him to consult his own interests. Thereupon, Monomachatus, a prudent man, approached the Emperor, and after appeasing him with skilful flattery, eagerly accepted the post at Dyrrachium. So, having taken leave of the Emperor previous to his departure for Epidamnus, and receiving his orders about the Duchy in writing (and those Scythians, Borilus and Germanus, did their best to expedite the matter), he quitted the royal city on the morrow for his destination, Epidamnus and the country of Illyricum. But he met my father Alexius near the so-called Pege; here a church has been built in honour of my mistress, the Virgin-mother of our Lord, which is famous among the churches of Byzantium. They saw each other there, and Monomachatus at once began an impassioned speech to the Great Domestic.

モノマコスの刎頚の友であり、皇后の親戚でもあるヨハネスはこれを耳にして、またスキタイ人達の悪意の篭った執拗な讒言に気付いたのでモノマコスのところへ行き、皇帝とスキタイ人達が言ったことを伝えて自身の利益を考えるように忠告した。それゆえ、賢明なモノマコスは皇帝に近づき言葉巧みに追従を並べて皇帝の心を和ませてから、ドッラキュウムでの仕事を引き受けた。モノマコスのエピダマナスへの出立に先立って皇帝への暇乞いを済ませ、書面で辞令を受け取り(スキタイ人のボリウスとゲルマヌスがこの案件を処理するのに必死だった。)早朝のうちに帝都を離れ赴任地であるエピダマナス、イリュリア地方へと旅立った。しかしモノマコスはぺゲと呼ばれる地で私の父アレクシオスに会った。この地には聖母マリアを記念してビザンツ帝国の中でも有名な教会が建設されている最中であった。彼らはそこで出会い、そこでモノマコスは総司令官(アレクシオス)に向かって情熱的な演説を始めた。

He told him that he was being exiled because of their mutual friendship, and
because of the envy of the Scythians, Borilus and Germanus. This covetous couple,
he said, had turned the wheel, so to say, of their universal maliciousness
against him in full revolution; and were now banishing him from his friends, and
this beloved city, for seemingly good reasons. Thus he told his tale of woe in
detail, and all the false information given about him to the Emperor, and all he
had endured at the hands of these servants; and the Domestic of the West deigned
to console him as much as possible, and verily he was well-fitted to relieve a soul bowed down with troubles. And saying finally that assuredly God would avenge these insults, and with a reminder to him never to forget their friendship, they parted, the one bound for Dyrrachium, and the other to enter the imperial city. When Monomachatus reached Dyrrachium [42] he heard two pieces of news; firstly, the tyrant Robert's military preparations, and, secondly, the revolt of Alexius; so he carefully weighed what his own conduct should be. Ostensibly he displayed hostility to both, but he had really a deeper plan than that of open warfare. For the Great Domestic had informed him by letter of the late occurrences, namely, that he had been threatened with the loss of his eyes, and that, in consequence of this threat, and of the tyrannous act that was being practised, he had taken measures against his enemies. He called upon Monomachatus to rise in rebellion also on behalf of his friend, and to collect money wherever he could, and send it to him. "For," he wrote, "we are in need of money, and without money, nothing of what should be done, can be done." However, Monomachatus did not send money, but spoke kindly to the ambassadors, and instead of money, entrusted them with a letter conceived in this strain - he still preserved his old friendship for Alexius, and promised to retain it in the future; and, with regard to the money he ordered, he (Monomachatus) longed to send him as much as he wanted. "But," he wrote, "a point of justice restrains me. For I received this appointment from the Emperor Botaniates, and I swore the oath of fealty to him. Therefore, I should not appear, even in your eyes, a loyal subject as far as Emperors are concerned, were I at once to comply with your request. But if divine providence allots the imperial throne to you, then as I have been your friend from the beginning, so after this event I shall be your most faithful servant." This excuse Monomachatus made to my father, and tried to conciliate him (I mean my father) and Botaniates, simultaneously, but he also sent a much plainer message to the barbarian Robert, and then broke forth into open rebellion, and for this I must condemn him severely. But perhaps this kind of unstable conduct, ever changing with the changes in the government, is but natural; and all such men are prejudicial to the public weal, but steer a safe course for themselves, for they study nothing but their own personal interests, and even so they generally fail.


モノマコスは、自身がアレクシオスとの友情とボリウスとゲルマヌス二人のスキタイ人の嫉妬によって追放の憂き目に会い。この強欲な二人組が悪の車輪を全力で回して体よくモノマコスを友人達と愛した帝都から引き離した。このように彼は自身の悲話を詳しく語り、皇帝に伝えられた間違った情報や皇帝の召使い達によって彼が耐えなければならなかったことの全てを話した。そこで西方最高司令官はモノマコスをできうる限り慰めようとなさったが、真実、困難によって打ちひしがれた魂を救うのに適した人であった。そして最後に神は必ずやその恥辱に対して復讐をなさるだろと言い、二人の友誼を忘れないようにさとして、別れた。一人はドゥラキウムへ、そしてもう一人は帝都へと向かった。モノマコスはドゥラキウムへ着くと、二つの知らせを耳にした。ひとつは暴君ロベルトが軍備を整えているということ、そしてもう一つがアレクシオスの反乱であった。そこでモノマコスは慎重に己の進退を考えて、表面的にはロベルトとアレクシオスの両者と敵対するフリをしたが、実際に戦いに訴えるよりは深い考えをもっていた。最高司令官は手紙でモノマコスに一連の経緯を伝えた、すなわちアレクシオスが目を失うおそれがあり、その恐れの為と暴虐な振る舞いの故に敵に対して立ち上がらざるをえなかったことを伝えたのだ。アレクシオスはモノマコスーに味方となり共に立ち上がり、金をどこでもいいので集めて送るように呼びかけた。アレクシオスは「我々は金を必要としており、金が十分にないためにすべきことを何一つできないでいる」と書き送ったのだ。しかし、モノマコスは金を送らず、使者に向かって優しく語りかけ、金の代わりに以下のような調子の手紙を託した。自分は(モノマコス)は貴下との友情を大事に思っているし、将来に渡ってそれを大事にしようと思っている。そしてアレクシオスが命じて来た金のことについても、自分はアレクシオスが望むままにおくりたいと思っているが、「しかし」と続けた。「正義という観点からすると躊躇してしまう」なぜなら、私はボタネイアテス帝からこの任務を受けたとき私は彼に対する忠誠を誓った。「それゆえ皇帝が関係する限り、貴下の要請に応ずることで、忠誠に関して、たとえ貴下の目に対してでも、明らかにすべきでないと思う。しかし、神意が貴下に帝冠を授けた時は、貴下とは友人で有り続けたように貴下のもっとも忠実な召使いであろう、と続けた。このような言い訳をアレクシオスのところへ送り、アレクシオスとボタネイアテスの両者同時に宥めようとしたのだ。しかし、蛮族のロベルトにはもっと平易な手紙を送って、反乱を起こすに至った。そしてそれゆえに私は彼を断罪せざるを得ない。しかし、こうした政府が変わるたびに決まって起こる落ち着きのない企ては、起こるべくしておこることとはいえ、首謀者が市民の不安をよそに、己の利益にのみとらわれて保身に舵を切るのが常である故に大抵の場合に失敗に終わる。

Behold, my steed has run off the high road of my history, but although he is out of hand, I must bring him back to our former road. Robert, indeed, had ever been wildly impatient to cross into our country, and was ever dreaming of Dyrrachium, but now, on receipt of Monomachatus' message, his ardour burst all restraint, and he pushed on the [43] naval expedition with all his might and main, and hurried up the soldiers, and whipped up their courage by stimulating addresses. Monomachatus, having set things in trim in this direction, now began constructing a second place of refuge for himself in another place; For he won over Bodinus and Michaelas, the Ex-archs of Dalmatia by his letters, and influenced their decisions by opportune gifts; thus opening secretly, as it were, various doors for himself. For he reasoned that if he were to fail with Robert and Alexius, and be rejected by both of them, then he would turn deserter, and go straight to Bodinus and Michaelas in Dalmatia. For, supposing that Robert and Alexius declared themselves his enemies, he placed his remaining hopes on Michaelas and Bodinus, and arranged to flee to them, should the feelings of Robert and Alexius be plainly adverse to him. But here we will let these matters rest. It is high time I should turn to my father reign, and relate how and why he became ruler. I do not intend to narrate his life before he became ruler, but all his successes and failures as Emperor; if we shall occasionally find him unsuccessful in the course of the long stretch we are to traverse, I should not spare him for being my father if anything, he did struck me as not well done; nor shall I gloss over his successes to avoid the under-current of suspicion that it is a daughter writing about her father, for in either case I should be wronging truth. This then is my aim, as I have repeatedly stated already, and the subject I have chosen is the Emperor, my father. We will leave Robert in the spot to which our history has brought him, and now consider the Emperor's doings. We shall reserve the wars and battles against Robert for a later book.

私の馬はまた歴史という道から逸れてしまい手に負えないが、もといた道へと戻らねばらない。ロベルトは実際、海峡を渡り我らの国へと進むことを我慢できず、絶えずドゥラキウムを夢に見るようになっていた。しかしいまやモノマコスのメッセージを受け取ると、かれの激情は抑えがたいまでに高まり、全軍を率いて海を渡っての遠征に踏み出した。そして、兵士を急き立てて、それぞれの名前を呼びかけて士気を鼓舞した。モノマコスはさらに次のように計り、彼にとってのもう一つの逃げ場を用意した。まず、ダルマティア前大司教のミカエラスとボディウスを手紙で説得した、また偶然も彼ら二人の決定に影響を与えた。このように様々な逃げ道を自身の為に用意した。要するにロベルトとアレクシオスを両てんびんにかけ、もし両方から拒絶された場合でもダルマティアのミカエラスとボディウスの所へ逃げ込めるように計ったというわけである。しかし、モノマコスのことはひとまず脇に置き、我が父のことを語ろう、いかにしてそして何故父が支配者となったのかを。私の意図するところは皇帝としての父の成功と失敗であり、それ以前の父の所業ではないからである。これから書く長きにわたる父の成したことの中には不首尾に終わることもままあるが、自分の父であるという理由でそれらを記述しなかったり、事実を枉げて書くようなことはしない。前に繰り替えし述べたように、主題は皇帝アレクシオスを記述することであるから。それゆえ、ここではロベルトのことは脇に置き、皇帝アレクシオスが成したことを考えることにしよう。ロベルトとの戦争と戦いは後章に譲ることとする。


  • 最終更新:2012-08-12 15:51:39

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